Deep learning of topological phase transitions from the point of view of entanglement for two-dimensional chiral p-wave superconductors
Guang-Yu Huang1*, Tsung-Pao Cheng1, Yuan-Hong Tsai4,5, Ming-Chiang Chung1,2,3
1Department of Physics, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan
2Physics Divison, National Center for Theoretical Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan
3Physics Department, Northeastern university, Boston, Massachusetts, Taiwan
4AI Foundation, AI Foundation, Taipei, Taiwan
5Taiwan AI Academy, Taiwan AI Academy, Taipei, Taiwan
* Presenter:Guang-Yu Huang,
Applying deep learning to investigate topological phase transitions (TPTs) becomes a useful method due to not only its ability to recognize patterns but also its statistical excellency to examine the amount of information carried by different types of data inputs. Among possible data types, entanglement-related quantities, such as Ma- jorana correlation matrices (MCMs), one-particle entanglement spectra (OPES), and entanglement eigenvectors (OPEEs), have been proved effective, however, are to date mostly restricted to one dimension. Here, we propose practical input data forms based on those quantities to study TPTs and to compare the efficiency of each form on classic two-dimensional chiral p-wave superconductors via the deep learning approach. First, we find that different input forms, either matrices or tensors both originated from real MCMs, can affect the precise locations of the predicted transition points. Next, due to the complex nature of OPEEs, we extract three spatially dependent quantities from OPEEs, one related to the “intensity,” and the other two related to “phases” of particle and hole components. We show that similar to taking OPES directly as inputs, solely using “intensity” quantity can only distinguish topological phases from trivial ones, whereas using either whole MCMs or complete OPEE-extracted quantities can provide sufficient information for deep learning to distinguish between phases of matter with different U (1) gauges or Chern numbers. Finally, we discuss certain characteristic features in the deep learning approach and, in particular, they reveal that our trained models indeed learn physically meaningful features, which confirms the potential use even at high dimensions.

Keywords: quantum entanglement, Quantum phase transition, Novel quantum material, topological superconductor, quantum information