Evidence of Planckian Physics At Scrambling Time
Pei-Ming Ho1*, Hikaru Kawai1, Yuki Yokokura2
1Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
2iTHEMS, RIKEN, Wako, Japan
* Presenter:Pei-Ming Ho, email:pmho@phys.ntu.edu.tw
In the background of a gravitational collapse, we compute the transition amplitudes for the creation of particles due to higher-derivative interactions in addition to Hawking radiation. The amplitudes grow exponentially with time for distant observers and become of order 1 when the collapsing matter is about a Planck length outside the horizon. As a result, the effective theory breaks down at the scrambling time, invalidating its prediction of Hawking radiation. Planckian physics comes into play to decide the fate of black-hole evaporation.

Keywords: information loss paradox, Hawking radiation, effective theory